War, Treaties and Sovereignty
Editor's Words: We are going to introduce articles to present to you the viewpoints from Republic of China's original graceful government, which contributed greatly to world peace. We are in the process of seeking understanding and justice, with real substantive compensation, with our sacred goal being the eventual restoration of our sovereignty of mainland China. Let us hope a better and fairer world will emerge to smooth our wounds, and may justice and peace shine on this earth of ours.
Analysis of World War II Allies Overly Generous Concessions to the Soviet Union without Honoring Republic of China's Contribution
Han Institute President addresses the issue of Diaoyutai sovereignty
We need to understand Cairo Conference and this conditional treaty designed by our humane-at-heart nationalist government.
After WWII, my grandfather Jiaxin Kan went to Manchuria on an American plane as part of a delegation of seven, to transfer the sovereignty of Manchuria from Japan to the Republic of China.
This is because of the Cairo Conference agreement designed by legal expert Wang Chung-hui, in concerted efforts with national officials such as my grandfather and Dr. Jiu Jia-hua.
The Cairo Conference Outlined the Post War Plan of Restoring Sovereignty
On November 30, 1943, in the Teheran Conference, after Churchill introduced the content of Cairo communique, Stalin told Churchill that he was completely in agreement with the declaration and the entire content. Korea should be independent; and Manchuria and Taiwan should return to Republic of China. You may refer this from FRUS 1943 Cairo and Tehran page 566.
Because the Soviet Union was not at war with Japan, Stalin did not attend the Cairo Conference, but he attended the Tehran Conference, and promised the allies that at the end of the war with Germany, the Soviets would send troops to fight Japan, but in exchange for Japan's northernmost four islands.
Cairo gained the total endorsement of Stalin, so Cairo was great plan prepared by the ROC side with Dr. Wong Chung-hui, a top legal expert with a Yale Law degree, who was the PM for the Beiyang government cabinet which won the good name of "Good Man Cabinet". In 1927 he went to work as the first judicial minister for the fledgling young Republic of China.
While Cairo was a success story with ROC experts attending along with Churchill and Roosevelt, the complication is the Yalta Secret treaty, which was without the Republic of China's attendance. The decisions at Yalta are not justified because they were made without ROC representation.
Both Cairo and Tehran were the concerted efforts of the British and the US, urging the Chinese and Soviets to come up with man power to fight the war. While the Chinese Nationalists honored it with real action, the Soviets weaseled out on the commitment, but gained grand concessions from the allies. The Soviets did not declare war on Japan until one day after the US dropped the first atomic bomb on Japan, yet reaped the same benefits as if they has fought against Japan for many years, while China had fought against Japan since 1937 on their own land.
Manchuria's history of Sovereignty dispute
On November 27, 1943, In Cairo, the allied world leaders Churchill, Roosevelt, with Chiang Kai-shek held a legal conference in determining the future land distribution of the WWII. The content said that Japan would surrender the encroached land to the Republic of China.
The ROC legal representative adviser was Dr. Wang Chung-hui, Yale University Ph.D. The returning of the land was on condition of Chinese sending troops to assist the allies in upcoming battles. Chinese recruited more than 100,000 youth to help the governor of Burma, Mountbatten, for instance. My father was one of the 100,000 soldiers recruited to fulfill the project called "100K youth is 100K army; one inch mountain river is one inch blood".
ROC statesmen drafted this proposal and it was consented to by the world leaders Roosevelt and Churchill, but without Stalin's attendance. But on the following day, November 28, at the Tehran conference, Stalin attended with Churchill and Roosevelt. In the conference, Russia was promised the four northernmost Japanese islands in exchange for Soviet's assistance to the allies.
But the real truth is that after Roosevelt died, things deteriorated, and the Soviets outmaneuvered the uninformed Truman, demanding concessions that they claimed Roosevelt had secretly made to them at the Yalta conference.
The Soviets, without firing one shot or sending a soldier, were able to be given Manchuria under Russia's control, as they took all the power plants, and surrendered weapons from Japan in Manchuria, which they gave or allowed to be taken by the Chinese Communists. My grandfather only found the skeleton of a power plant; the equipment had all been taken away by the Soviets. The Soviet military hindered the Nationalist troops to advance beyond the Great Wall as supposedly the secret Yalta treaty stipulated that the Japanese troops were to surrender to the Soviet military and not to the Chinese Nationalist military.
This is because the Yalta Treaty took place when Roosevelt was ill in the last month of his life. All throughout the hard negotiations during the ROC representatives were not present. Stalin insisted that Japan surrender to the Soviet military in Manchuria.
When my grandfather went to Manchuria to take over along with other six Nanjing government's special task force, he saw Japanese kneeling down on the streets and offered up everything they owned including basins, tubs. But factories were only empty shells, and all of the electricity in the north of Manchuria was controlled by the Chinese Communists, there was no light in the Nationalist-controlled downstream area. Communists spread the rumor that Nationalists robbed Manchuria, when in fact the robbing was done by the Chinese Communists in conjunction with the Soviets. The women all had to shave their hair to avoid being raped by the Soviet soldiers. The Soviets picked the best products for themselves, like the best tangerines, and discarded the second-best. This is called the grand pillage of Manchuria by the Soviets after the Japanese surrender. In order to illustrate to you about Manchuria's condition, it is a parallel example to that of Czechoslovakia, as it was first invaded by the Nazis, and next the Soviets. Manchuria was invaded by the Russians and Japanese for centuries, and it was the war theatre during the 1904-1905 Japan-Russia War, conducted on Chinese soil.
Nationalist Contributions in WWII
The Nationalists negotiated with the US to abolish the unequal treaties and the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act in 1942. This was done by President Roosevelt in thanks to the Nationalists war efforts as an ally in the war. This fulfilled Dr. Sun Yat-sen's will to fight for an equal status for the Chinese nation, but was only achived after much painful sacrifice on the homeland.
We carried on with several large converging wars. Perhaps by looking at one general's efforts, Zhang Linfu, we can comprehend the battle for humanity.
Humanity love is in the Yi Jing already. This is our ethnical cultural value which flows throughout dynasties and never dies. This is also the Republic of China's main character and spiritual value.
We inherited this value, rather than the mainland of which is occupied by communist values.
We completed a successful but gruesome war against invader fascist Japan
We never treat lives frivolously. However we will die for justice. This is based on Confucius' idea: Die for a just cause
General Zhan Linfu exemplified this idea when he conducted the defense battle in Nanjing 1937 under the 74th army.
He and several daredevils took off their shirts and carried the machine guns to do battles in close quarter fights against Japanese invaders in Shanghai. The Japanese were surprised by the resistance and started to modify their line of "three months to finish China". As it turned out, the Nationalists carried out eight years of hard battles, and the country was in a bleak economic predicament as the harvest in the central land of Henan was burned by the Japanese, starting a famine in 1942-3.
The 74th army carried out battles in Wuhan converging war 1938 and Changsha with high fatalities, but always regrouped by enlisted new troops. But after Japan surrendered, during the civil war, the entire army was totally annihilated by the communists during the Meng Liang Ge battle in which General Zhan Linfu was encircled and committed suicide. The historical truth is that the Nationalists fought bravely and successfully against Japan, but were later defeated by the Soviet-assisted Communist armies. During the civil war, the leftists in the U.S. government like Alger Hiss started an arms embargo against the Chinese nationalists, and the economy collapsed because they only received 20% of the promised aid from the US after the Nationalists suspended the tax collection.
The Omitted True Face of the Nationalists
The forgotten and suppressed humane side of the nationalist government needs to be revealed
Despite that we lost mainland China, we have never lost our Chinese culture values in Taiwan. Don't write us off in Taiwan, as we represent Chinese values, not the communists, and we constantly educate and change the Chinese communist perceptions so that they are gradually awakening.
Nationalists inherited our cultural values based on "Ren Ai", love of humanity.
When the Nationalists relocated to Taiwan, we continued those cultural values. We also relocated banks like China Bank and Transportation Bank, filled with tons of gold reserves which allowed the currency foundation and economic development.
Spiritual properties also relocated such as Suzhou University, founded by American Methodist Young John Allen. Suzhou University was the first four-year college, founded by an American Christian, and was the premier law school in China. Dr. Wang Chung-hui was the chairman of the board for Suzhou University after it was relocated from China to Taiwan, so Taiwan inherited the best Nationalist minds. We had a great contribution to Taiwan in legal, academic and legislative fields. We would like to remind the DPP chairmen like Mr. Su Zhen-chang and Ms. Tsai Ing-wen to examine the Nationalist contributions in a fair light.
Taiwan was endowed with nationalist constructs such as newspapers, radio stations, Central Broadcast, and university teaching staff that brought the ancient dance of Han Dynasty, such as the Cloud Gate choreography group is based on the teaching from a mainland-migrated teacher.
My Comprehension of the Humanity Veterans Hospital in Taiwan
We see in the remote region of Taiwan East coast the mingling of aboriginal culture with the newer migration of people from China.
It is like a forgotten peaceful garden tucked in a lost world. It has the best mental facility in Taiwan run by Veterans Hospitals. The local community is based on economic drive of the Nationalist health industry and patients need public land to mend their mental traumas and sooth their wounds in the mental peace. This public land has been won by the military, so the veterans' facility is well run for the benefit of humanity.
Because it is isolated, the patients have a chance to come clear of their sufferings and have their space without disturbance.
We must not paint Taiwan with "228" hate or smear ethnic Chinese as "outer province pigs" like the Nazis or Chiang Jing-guo's KGB Secret Police style.
We must give recognition for the humanity service that the military has done.
To publicize the Humane Nationalist government policy is Crucial
Humane Nationalist government have given public land to the dislocated flood victims in 1959 from middle and west Taiwan, to allow them traverse to this Hualian Eastern coast to receive land and settle there.
They appreciate their thanks. Indeed, the Nationalist government gave public land to local Taiwanese farmers, over 170K households.
Nationalists carry on the great humanity racial settlement project like Tang Dynasty PM Wen in allocating a Yellow River Hetao with abundant water and grass for the defeated Muslim population to extend their descendants to come.
We would like the people to examine the graceful policies that the Nationalist government have given to the Taiwanese locals. In the land-distribution process they have not done justice to the military dependents because the benefits were heavily weighted toward the native people. Although the Nationalists government and military paid a dear price to win the war, the peace dividends all are enjoyed by the Communists and the local Taiwanese, who still call us outer province pigs.
It is time to reckon the historical truth that the humane side of the Nationalists carried out the just war against the invasion of the Soviets and Japan. The aspiration Havel's Charter 77 reflected the brave work of the Czech people under two suppressive regimes, Nazis and Soviets. We would like to emerge out of the Soviet Russia and Japan's trampling on the Chinese people to be free like the Czechs.
Time to see the humane side of the Nationalist educators and the Nationalist founding fathers efforts on setting up the national congressional structure
The Nationalist contribution is undervalued and grossly misunderstood. It helped the allies to free the eastern threat, so to complete a joint allied force success in Leningrad. This was achieved in many Nationalist large scale converging wars.
Nationalists never gave up in our pursuit for Congressional structure. Even at time of war against Japan, Political Commission Chan Zheng Yuan was convened with delegates from entire China. This eventually led to the birth of the National Assembly, Constitution promulgation and Senate election.
The Cairo Conference stipulated Manchuria and Taiwan were to be returned to the Republic of China. This is on condition that Chinese government furthered the call of more youth to be sent to war zones to help out on British controlled Burma and to serve interest of the Allied.
In Tehran conference, soviet leader Stalin expressed to Churchill that he also agreed to Cairo Conference terms.
Since the lives have been spent and the sacrificial price paid, we urge the world to be conscientious to recognize the contribution of the Republic of China and to honor our sovereignty over Mainland China (including Manchuria) and Taiwan. Diaoyutai is part of Taiwan Yilan County's executive jurisdiction, and Taiwan was already returned to the ROC according to the Cairo Agreement, so the sovereignty of Diaoyutai belongs to the ROC, as we fulfilled our promise to call up 100,000 youth to help out the Allies war missions, such as the British in Burma.